Герундий и инфинитив в английском языке

13 сентября 2017
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Спустя полгода интенсивного освоения английского, практически каждый ученик сталкивается с двумя уникальными понятиями – «герундий» и «инфинитив». Их нет в нашем языке в данном виде, а сложность их применения заключается в сходстве перевода и смысла, но в разности структуры и формирования предложения. Ни герундий, ни инфинитив чаще всего не являются главными членами предложения, используются они в качестве дополнения и пояснений, неся важную информацию.

Содержание статьи:

Оба вариант – формы глаголов, используемые в разговорной речи для дополнения основных сказуемых. Какой из вариантов выбрать в конкретном случае зависит от цели повествования, а правила использования: герундий или инфинитив, нужно выучить наизусть. Со временем обороты улягутся в голове и станут воспроизводиться интуитивно. Рассмотрим каждый из них отдельно, определим сходства и различия, разберем правила их использования в предложениях.


No smoking, или в смокинге не входить! Что такое Gerund?

Важная информация - герундий является глаголом, но аналогичной формы в русском языке нет, поэтому к нему подходит вопрос Что? (в некоторых случаях Что делать?) и переводится слово, как схожее по смыслу существительное.

 

Его можно сравнить с деепричастным оборотом. В предложениях он выполняет роль подлежащего или дополнения. По структуре он представляет собой глагол + суффикс -ing, к примеру, reading, dancing. Причем в переводе эти слова будут звучать, как «чтение» и «танцы» соответственно. Множественное и единственное число выглядят одинаково. Нужно запомнить главное:

Все глаголы в форме Gerund имеют суффикс –ing, или «инговое» окончание, но не все слова, оканчивающиеся на «ing» - герундий.

  • Her singing is not good – ее пение не очень хорошее.
  • I have finished explaining the rule. – я завершил объяснение правила.

Фразу можно перевести и по другому, тогда формулировка станет более понятной – «я закончил объяснять правило». Тут герундий выступает дополнением к глаголу и раскрывает основное действие говорящего. Причем относится происходящее к настоящему или прошедшему времени, для подобного действия в планах используют Infinitive.

Применяется герундий в 3 основных случаях

  • В связке с некоторыми предлогами before, in, after, instead of, good at;
  • В выражениях there is no point in, it’s no good, it’s no use;
  • В связке с некоторыми основными глаголами, в качестве дополнения.
    Если герундий выполняет роль подлежащего, то выглядит предложение примерно так:
    singing is very good for your mood – пение хорошо для твоего настроения.
    smoking is prohibited – курение запрещено.

Использующийся с предлогами герундий является уже дополнением и переводится следующим образом:

  • Before going out, please take your keys – перед выходом, пожалуйста, возьми ключи;
  • She went to work instead of staying home and taking the medicine – она ушла на работу вместо того, чтобы остаться дома и принимать лекарства.

Здесь применяется форма герундия, потому что действие происходило в прошлом и имеет влияние на настоящий момент. Вам следует применить подобную конструкцию в следующих случаях:

  1. Действие не привязано ко времени: no smoking! (не курить!).
  2. Какое-то действие запланировано: we think of going Moscow in next weekend – мы подумываем съездить в Москву на следующих выходных.
  3. Если оба используемых глагола описываю действие, происходящее в момент разговора: I’m surprised to hearing it – я удивлена слышать это.
  4. Основное действие является следствием происходящего, обозначенного дополнением: I don’t remember doing it before – я не помню, что делал это ранее.

Глаголы, после которых идет форма «gerund»

Отдельно следует рассмотреть ситуацию, когда имеется связка двух глаголов, один из них должен быть в форме инфинитива или герундия и дополнить основной. Существуют варианты, когда использовать можно только одну форму, когда подходят обе, не изменяя смысла, и когда форма глагола влияет на перевод предложения. Бывают примеры, где герундий и инфинитив привносят в рассказ абсолютно разный смысл.

Если в предложении имеется один из следующих глаголов, то применяем герундий:

С ними всегда будет использоваться герундий, и связка будет строиться следующим образом:

  • V (глагол) + v-ing.

Как распознать инфинитив?

Другая сторона медали, или иная форма глагола в предложении – инфинитив. Он обозначает действие, более краткое и менее продолжительно по времени, чем герундий. Как правило, инфинитив предлагает что-то сделать в будущем, он направлен на запланированные дела, для их достижения нужно совершить какое-то действие. К примеру:

  • She asked me to protect her – она попросила меня ее защитить.

Инфинитив предполагает более общие действия, в то время как герундий конкретизирует ситуацию. Поэтому в предложении в первом варианте глаголами все ограничено, а во втором варианте часто дополняют пояснениями.

По структуре инфинитив представляет собой неопределенную, начальную форму глагола и отвечает на вопросы Что делать? и Что сделать? Переводится слово в таком случае, как действие, и в предложении употребляется с частицей «to». Причем два инфинитива подряд разделяются предлогом «and», а второй произносится без «to». В таком случае, его называют «голый инфинитив», или bare infinitive. Пример:

  • He went to the pool to swim and meet friends – он пошел в бассейн, чтобы поплавать и встретиться с друзьями.

Инфинитив используется в предложении в следующих случаях:

  1. После прилагательных glad, nice, good, happy и sorry: I’m glad to see you – я рад тебя видеть.
  2. Для уточнения цели действия, когда можно задать вопрос «Зачем?»: She told me a news to surprise me – Она рассказала мне новость, чтобы удивить меня.
  3. После выражений со словом «would», например: I would like to read book – Я был бы рад прочитать книгу.
  4. После модальных глаголов can, should, must, а также после make и let инфинитив употребляется без частицы «to»: I can take your bag – Я могу взять твою сумку.
  5. После перечня глаголов, таких как agree, beg, choose, список будет предоставлен ниже.

Чтобы понять правила применения инфинитивной формы, следует узнать, когда она используется:

  • Для обозначения двух действий, происходящих одновременно, а также если они идут последовательно в недалеком будущем;
    - в случае обозначения надежд, мечтаний, планов или желаний;
  • После модальных глаголов, или в связке с was и were, обозначая незавершенность, несовершенность процесса: you should have stayed at home – ты должен был остаться дома;
  • Для обозначения длительного процесса, предшествующего высказывание в настоящем времени: Я знаю, что он играл в футбол 3 года – I know him to play football for 3 years;
Инфинитив используется в речи в 2-3 раза реже, чем герундий. Если вы затрудняетесь выбрать правильную форму в разговоре, постройте фразу таким образом, чтобы использовать знакомую конструкцию. Плюсы герундия и инфинитива в их взаимозаменяемости, в зависимости от ситуации и постановки слов в предложении.

Глаголы для инфинитива

Для инфинитивной формы применяют следующую конструкцию:

  • V (глагол из списка) + V/ to V.

По этой схеме легко составить варианты со следующими словами:

11_1.jpg?1505315808717

Здесь представлены основные глаголы, применяемые в разговорной речи, их вполне достаточно для полноценного общения с носителями языка.

Сходства герундия и инфинитива

Существуют глаголы и выражения, после которых можно поставить и тот, и другой вариант без изменения смысла предложения. К ним относятся:

  • To begin (начинать), to continue (продолжать), to intend (намереваться), to love (любить), to start (начинать), to finish.

Примеры предложений с такими условиями:

  • She began to cry/crying – Она начала плакать.
    - She continued to talk/talking – Она продолжила разговаривать.
    - I love to dance/dancing – Я люблю танцевать.
    - We started to read/reading – Мы начали читать.
    - They finished to discuss/discussing – Они закончили дискуссию.


Основные отличия герундия и инфинитива

Несмотря на схожесть понятий и применения, эти две формы глагола имеют несколько кардинальных отличий.

  • Во-первых, инфинитив поясняет более короткое действие, для определения длительного процесса используют герундий.
  • Во-вторых, в запрещениях, указываемых на таблицах, используют герундий, он более популярный и употребляется почти в 2 раза чаще.
  • В-третьих, инфинитив указывает на прогнозируемое действие, планируемое в будущем. Герундий показывает на событие или процесс, происходящий в настоящем или длившийся в прошлом.

У каждой формы есть перечень глаголов, с некоторыми можно использовать только герундий, или только инфинитив, но есть слова, когда применимы оба, но несут они разный смысл.

К примеру, глагол «be anxious» может переводиться, как «сильно хотеть» или «бояться последствий», в зависимости от того, герундий или инфинитив выступают после.
  • I’m anxious about leaving my son alone in the house – Я боюсь оставлять сына дома одного.
  • I’m anxious to hear your news – я очень хочу услышать твои новости.
А глагол «forget» в схожем предложении имеет кардинально разный смысл, в зависимости от «соседства».
  • I forgot giving you my book – Я забыл, что дал тебе книгу (Прошедшее время), или
  • I forgot to give you my book – Я забыл дать тебе мою книгу.

К этим глаголам также относят:

3.jpg?1505298134888

Несмотря на объемность информации про формы герундий и инфинитив, запомнить их достаточно просто особенно при высоком уровне подготовки. Приступайте к разбору тонкостей их употребления на уровне intermediate, не раньше, тогда все правила будут восприниматься легче и проще будут запоминаться.


Как проще всего изучать иностранные слова

Во всех методиках любой школы есть базовые способы быстрого запоминания иностранных слов, чтобы можно было потом их использовать в речи. Каждый преподаватель строит уроки из совокупности основных методов запоминания:

  • Визуальный;
  • Аудиальный (на слух);
  • Механический (написание);
  • Ассоциативный.

Кому-то проще 2 раза прочитать и запомнить, кому-то обязательно записать в словарь, а некоторым ученикам достаточно внимательно слушать преподавателя во время урока. Любое обучение должно включать:

  • Работу с учебными материалами – упражнения, задачи, правила, схемы;
  • Ведение личного словаря для записи изученных слов и понятий и для повторения;
  • Прослушивание песен и аудиокниг на английском, можно смотреть новости, слушать радио или закачать материал в память телефона;

  • Просмотр видео: фильмов, мультфильмов, программ на английском с субтитрами или без;
  • Разговорная речь и общение с носителями языка;
  • Обмен знаниями на групповых занятиях или индивидуально  преподавателем.

При правильном комбинировании способов, при регулярных занятиях с повторением пройденного материала, понимание и привыкание придет уже через пару месяцев. А достаточно свободно можно начать разговаривать за год-полтора. Самым действенным способом всегда является самый сложный – поездка на длительное время в англоговорящую страну без возможности общения с земляками. В экстремальных условия мозг способен активизировать накопленные ресурсы и в кратчайшие сроки получить достаточно хороший результат.

В качестве послесловия

Подводя итог истории про особенности английского, хочется обозначить главные моменты:

  1. В классическом английском на Gerundium приходится около 80% ситуаций, в то время как Infinitve остается немного позади. Но современный вариант языковых правил говорит уже о равных правах этих двух форм, многие школы подают замещение инфинитивной формы герундием для упрощения общения и понимания нюансов.

  2. Для повседневного общения достаточно запомнить основные глаголы, предшествующие каждой формы, а также придаваемый ими смысл. Некоторые связки начнут воспроизводиться автоматически, не задумываясь. Да и переводить станет гораздо легче, не зацикливаясь на канонах и правилах.

  3. И герундий, и инфинитив несут важную функцию для понимания предложения в целом, используя их неправильно, можно ввести в заблуждение собеседника. Поэтому нужно больше тренироваться, выполнять упражнения и общаться на английском.

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Mitchel Samuel | 16 июня 2022 | 15:21

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